Basic of Biology and Living

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Introduction

  • Biology is natural science concerned with the study of life and living organism i.e, plants and animals
  • study of plants is called botany and study of animal is said to be Zoology. zoology and botany are collectively called biology. the term biology was coined by lamarck and Treviranus the scientist who gave the thought for the first time about the life of plants and animal was Aristotle. that’s why he is known as father of biology. he is also known as the father of Zoology.
  • Theophrastus is known as father of botany.

Living

  • Living organism mostly use of solar energy and they are certain character by which living can be distinguished from non living
  • There are five kind of Living e.g. Amphibia, Reptillia, Aves, mammalia

Amphibia

  • These are first land vertebrates
  • These are found both on land and water. all these are cold blooded.
  • Respiration take place throughout Gill, skin and langs and have three chambered heart
    examples; frog, necturus, Toad, Icthyophis, salamander

Reptilia

  • These are fast rule and vertebrates and crawling animals
  • These are cool blood and content two pair of limbs
  • The Skeleton is completely fixable and respiration take place through lungs
  • They have 3(1/2) chambered heart( four chambered heart in crocodile)
    example; lizard, snake, tortoise, Turtle, crocodile and Sphenodon etc.
  • Cobra is the only snake which makes nests.
  • Heloderma is the only poisonous lizard.
  • Sea snake is also called hydrophis belcheri.it is the world’s most poisonous snake.

Aves

  • These are aerial vertebrates birds and the animal of this group are warm blooded tetrapod vertibrates with Flight adaptation
  • They are fore feet are modified into Wings to fly.
  • They respire through laungs
  • Birds have no teeth, beak helps in feeding
  • They have a single ovary and pneumatic bones.e.g, crow, peacock , parrot etc.
  • Flightless bird kiwi and Emu.largest alive bird is ostrich and smallest bird is Hummingbird.largest zoo in India is Alipur Kolkata and the largest zoo of the world is cruiser the national park in South Africa.

Mammalia

  • These are warm blooded animal and diphyodont cause tooth comes twice in this animals
  • There is no necklace in their red blood cell( except in camel and IIama)
  • Skin of mammals have hair and external ear is present

mammals is divided into three sub classes

  • Prototheria: it lay eggs, e. g. Echidna.
    Metatheria: it bears the immature child, e.g. Kangaroo.
    Mutheria: it bears the well developed child e.g, human,
    They give birth to young one, but Echidna and duck billed Platypus are the egg laying mammals

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