Matter is anything which has mass and occupies space
It exists in 5 Phases VIZ, solid, liquid, gas, plasma, Bose Einstein condensate. out of which the former three are commonly seen.
States of matter
The three important States of matter are discussed below
- They have definite volume and shape
- They are incompressible and have strongest intermolecular interaction
- They are very dense as compared to liquid and gas example wood stone iron etc
- It is the temperature at which a substance convert from its solid state to liquid state melting point of ice at zero degree centigrade
- Melting point decreases in the presence of impurity
- It is the process of conversion of a substance from the solid phase 2 gas page without passing through and intermediate liquid phase
- It is used to separate sublimate from non sublimate
- They have definite volume but no definite shape. they take the shape of the vessel in which they are kept.
- They can close or considered as fluids e.g. milk, water, Mercury etc.
- It is a temperature at which vapor pressure of liquid become equal to atmospheric pressure
- It is different in different places
- Boiling point of water at normal condition is 100 degree centigrade
- It usually decreases at high altitude that’s why at high altitudes, the boiling point of water is less than 100 degree centigrade add more time is required to cook a food
- Boiling point of water in pressure cooker is high due to high pressure and hence, less time is required to cook the food.
- Boiling point increases in the presence of impurity
- It is the process of conversion of a liquid into vapours at any temperature below its boiling point.
- It increases with increase in surface area and temperature
- It produce cooling. that’s why we feel cool and some nail polish remover or spirit is kept on our palm
- They have neither definite volume no definite shape. they take the shape and volume of the container in which they are filled.
- They are highly compressible.
- They can flow so considered as fluids e.g. air, Oxygen and nitrogen.
- It is the process of conversion of gas into liquid
- Solid, liquid and gases are interconvertible by changing the condition of temperature and pressure
- Fluorescent tube contain helium gas and neon sign bulb continue on gas
- The fourth state of matter is called plasma. this state content ionized gas is super energetic and super excited particles.
Bose Einstein condensate
- In 1924-25, Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein gave the information about Bose Einstein condensate. it is a state of matter of lower density gas of boson cooled up 2 temperature which is very close to absolute zero or – 273. 15 degree centigrade. in fact, it is a fifth state of matter