States of Matter:Solid,liquid and Gas

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Matter is anything which has mass and occupies space

It exists in 5 Phases VIZ, solid, liquid, gas, plasma, Bose Einstein condensate. out of which the former three are commonly seen.

States of matter

The three important States of matter are discussed below

Solid

  • They have definite volume and shape
  • They are incompressible and have strongest intermolecular interaction
  • They are very dense as compared to liquid and gas example wood stone iron etc

Melting point

  • It is the temperature at which a substance convert from its solid state to liquid state melting point of ice at zero degree centigrade
  • Melting point decreases in the presence of impurity

Sublimation

  • It is the process of conversion of a substance from the solid phase 2 gas page without passing through and intermediate liquid phase
  • It is used to separate sublimate from non sublimate

Liquid

  • They have definite volume but no definite shape. they take the shape of the vessel in which they are kept.
  • They can close or considered as fluids e.g. milk, water, Mercury etc.

Boiling point

  • It is a temperature at which vapor pressure of liquid become equal to atmospheric pressure
  • It is different in different places
  • Boiling point of water at normal condition is 100 degree centigrade
  • It usually decreases at high altitude that’s why at high altitudes, the boiling point of water is less than 100 degree centigrade add more time is required to cook a food
  • Boiling point of water in pressure cooker is high due to high pressure and hence, less time is required to cook the food.
  • Boiling point increases in the presence of impurity

Evaporation

  • It is the process of conversion of a liquid into vapours at any temperature below its boiling point.
  • It increases with increase in surface area and temperature
  • It produce cooling. that’s why we feel cool and some nail polish remover or spirit is kept on our palm

Gases

  • They have neither definite volume no definite shape. they take the shape and volume of the container in which they are filled.
  • They are highly compressible.
  • They can flow so considered as fluids e.g. air, Oxygen and nitrogen.

Condensation

  • It is the process of conversion of gas into liquid
  • Solid, liquid and gases are interconvertible by changing the condition of temperature and pressure
  • Fluorescent tube contain helium gas and neon sign bulb continue on gas

Plasma

  • The fourth state of matter is called plasma. this state content ionized gas is super energetic and super excited particles.

Bose Einstein condensate

  • In 1924-25, Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein gave the information about Bose Einstein condensate. it is a state of matter of lower density gas of boson cooled up 2 temperature which is very close to absolute zero or – 273. 15 degree centigrade. in fact, it is a fifth state of matter

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