As per Oxfam India, Decline in rural jobs, transforming urban areas, unequal pay, the burden of unpaid care work and continuing prevalence of regressive social norms are some of the factors for low women’s participation in the workforce.
- Its estimates on employment-unemployment survey (EUS) 2011-12, done by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO), International Labour Organization (ILO) studies, and also builds on the first inequality report launched by Oxfam in 2018.
- It also highlights that on an average, women are paid 34 percent less than similarly qualified make workers for performing the same tasks.
- women professionals even in the highest ranks of labour (legislators, senior officials, and managers) are also paid less compared to their male counterparts. However, these women constitute only one per cent of the total female work force and the gap is lowest as they are aware of their rights.
- The wage difference is lesser for more skilled workers and more for semi-skilled or unskilled workers. Across enterprise type, wage difference is less for government/public sector and public/private limited company.
- Large pay gaps in terms of average daily wages exist in male and female wage rates of casual and regular workers in rural and urban areas and the gap is narrower for regular workers in urban areas. On the other hand, for casual workers, wage gap is narrower in rural areas.
Source:Down to Earth