National War Memorial: UPSC IAS
PM Modi inaugurated the country’s National War Memorial (NWM) adjoining the iconic India Gate complex in the heart of the capital, nearly 60 years after it was mooted to honour the fallen soldiers after Independence.
- The National War Memorial, near India Gate in New Delhi, is a fitting tribute to our soldiers who laid down their lives defending the nation, post-independence.
- The National War Memorial will not replace the Amar Jawan Jyoti which was built in 1972 underneath the India Gate arch to commemorate soldiers killed in the Indo-Pak War of 1971.
- The National War Memorial also commemorates the soldiers who participated and made the supreme sacrifice in Peace Keeping Missions, and Counter Insurgency Operations.
- Spread over an area of approximately 40 acres, the memorial comprises four concentric circles, namely- the ‘Amar Chakra, the Veerta Chakra, the ‘Tyag Chakra’ and the ‘Rakshak Chakra’ with names of 25,942 soldiers inscribed in golden letters on granite tablets.
- Amar Chakra: it is the innermost circle, with a granite Obelisk topped with a bronze Lion Capital. The Obelisk has a hollow centre where an eternal flame is lit.
- Veerta Chakra: It has 6 bronze murals depicting 6 major battles fought by the three forces, namely –Gangasagar (1971), Longewala (1971), Tithwal (1947), Rezang la, and Operations Meghdoot 1984) and Trident (1971) which was an offensive operation launched by the Indian Navy on Pakistan’s port city of Karachi during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
- Tyag Chakra: this commemorates all those soldiers who fell in the major wars and operation namely – 1947 J&K operation, 1962 China War, 1965 Pakistan war, 1971 Bangladesh liberation War, Indian peace Keeping Force (IPFK) operation Pawan in Sri Lanka, 1999 Kargil War, Operation Meghdoot (Saichen), Operation Rakshak (counter insurgency operation in J & K). It is laid with granite tablets, each bearing names of fallen soldier.
- Raksha Chakra: it has rows of trees symbolising soldiers who ensure territorial integrity of India.