The Hindu Vocabulary December 2018
3rd December 2018 (Download pdf )
- Unravel(verb): सुलझाना/স্পষ্ট করা/undo
Synonyms:Untangle,Disentangle, Straighten out
Antonyms: Entangle, Tangle, Complicate
Example: he cut the rope and started to unravel its strands
- Posit (Verb): किसी स्थिति में रखना/যথাস্থানে রাখা/Put forward as fact or as a basis for argument.
Synonyms: Postulate, Put forward, Advance, Propound
Antonyms: Abstain, Be honest, Disbelieve
Example: The need to posit this generalization is further evidence in support of a movement analysis of these constructions.
- Mere (Adjective): मात्र/মাত্র/used to emphasize how small or insignificant someone or something
Synonyms: Trifling, Meagre, Bare, Trivial, Paltry
Antonyms: Decorated, Indefinite, Uncertain
Example: His stomach rebelled at the mere thought of food
4. Contextualize (Verb) : प्रासंगिक बनाएं/প্রাসঙ্গিক করা/Place or study in context.
Synonyms: Doctrine, Philosophy, School of thought
Antonyms: Unbelief Imitation Pluralism Internationalism
Example: the excellent introduction summarizes and contextualizes Bowen’s career
- Evict (Verb): बेदख़ल करना/ উচ্ছেদ করা/ Expel (someone) from a property, especially with the support of the law.
Synonyms: Expel, Eject, Oust, Remove, Dislodge
Example: A single mother and her children have been evicted from their home.
6. Discernible (Adjective) : नमूदार/ লক্ষণীয় /Able to be discerned; perceptible.
Synonyms: Visible, Detectable, Noticeable, Perceptible
Example: The scandal had no discernible effect on his career.
7. Strident (Adjective) : कठोर/ কঠোর/Presenting a point of view, especially a controversial one, in an excessively forceful way.
Synonyms: Harsh, Raucous, Rough, Grating, Rasping, Jarring
Antonyms: Soft, Dulcet
Example: His voice had become increasingly strident.
- Depiction (Noun): चित्रण/ চিত্রণ/Portray in words; describe.
Synonyms: Describe, Detail, Relate, Narrate, Recount
Antonyms: Hide, Conceal, Suppress, Confuse
Example: the painting’s horrific depiction of war.
- RENEGADE (ADJECTIVE): आवारा)/ ধর্মমত বা দলতা্যাগকারী ব্যক্তি/ a person who deserts and betrays an organization, country, or set of principles.
Synonyms: difficult, resistant
Antonyms: obedient, dutiful
Example Sentence: an agent who later turns out to be a renegade
10. BROACH (VERB):चचाउठाना/ উঠI/raise (a difficult subject) for discussion.
Synonyms: bring up, moot
Antonyms: take back, deny
Example:The parents of the boy did not even broach the issue of marriage with Renee
4th December 2018 (Download pdf )
1.Reiterate (Verb) — बार बार दुहराना/ পুনরাবৃত্তি করা /state or do over again or repeatedly sometimes with wearying effect
Synonyms: Chime, Din, Iterate, Rehearse, Repeat
Antonyms: Tale back
Example: She reiterated that the government would remain steadfast in its support
- Semblance(Noun)– समानता/ আভাস /The outward appearance or apparent form of something, especially when the reality is different.
Synonyms: Charade, Disguise, Masquerade, Playacting
Antonyms: Bluntness, Candidness, Candor, Directness
Example: It bears some semblance to the thing I have in mind
- Remuneration(Noun)— पारिश्रमिक/Money paid for work or a service.
Synonyms: Payment, Pay, Salary, Wages, Earnings
Example: Most start by understating the problem of remuneration, some going as far as volunteering for unpaid work.
- Palpable(Adjective)— अवधारणात्मक/of a feeling or atmosphere so intense as to seem almost tangible.
Synonyms: Perceptible, Perceivable, Visible, Noticeable, Appreciable
Antonyms: Intangible, Imperceptible
Example: Corruption in public life is palpable evidence of the absence of the rule of law.
- 5. Distort(Verb)— विकृत करना/বিকৃত করা /Give a misleading or false account or impression of.
Synonyms: Misrepresent, Pervert, Twist, Falsify, Misreport, Misstate
Example: Many factors can distort the results
- Truce(Noun) — युद्धविराम संधि/ সাময়িক যুদ্ধবিরতি/An agreement between enemies or opponents to stop fighting or arguing for a certain time.
Synonyms: Ceasefire, Armistice Respite, Lull, Moratorium
Antonyms: Fighting, Hostilities
Example: The guerrillas called a three-day truce
- Albeit(Con.)– यद्यपि/ যদিও/ In spite of the fact that
Synonyms: though, even though, however
Example: He too wanted to replace animals, albeit only when this could be done without forgoing the real benefits of research.
- Apprehension (noun) – शंका/ আশঙ্কা/ anxiety or fear that something bad or unpleasant will happen
Synonyms: anxiety, angst, alarm, worry, uneasiness, unease, nervousness
Example: There is some apprehension in the office about who the new director will be
- protectionist (adjective)- व्यापार रक्षा वादी/ সংরক্ষণনীতির সমর্থক/ protectionist laws or methods are intended to help a country’s trade or industry
Example: The government has labelled many critics of its booming exports as trade protectionists.
- Amicable(Adjective) — मैत्रीपूर्ण/ বন্ধুত্বপূর্ণ/ Characterized by friendliness and absence of discord.
Synonyms: Friendly, Good-natured, Cordial, Civil, Courteous
Antonyms: Unfriendly, Hostile
Example: I can tell you that the meeting was professional, efficient and amicable.
5th December 2018 (Download pdf)
1.Hullabaloo(Noun)— कोलाहल / হৈচৈ/disturbance usually in protest
Synonyms: fuss, commotion, uproar, hubbub, outcry, furore, ruckus, ado, palaver, brouhaha, hue
Example: I am rather surprised that there has been all this hullabaloo on behalf of cyclists against the proposed arrangement.
- Vigour(Noun)–ताक़त/ তেজ/strength of thought, opinion, expression, etc.
Synonyms: strength, energy, or enthusiasm
Antonyms: weakness, listlessness, lethargy
Example: They set about the new task with vigour
3.Durable (Noun) —टिकाऊ/ টেকসই/able to withstand wear, pressure, or damage; hard-wearing.
Synonyms: Long-lasting, hard-wearing, heavy-duty, tough, resistant, strong, sturdy, stout,
Antonyms: Flimsy, delicate, short-lived
Example: We encourage families to obtain durable power of attorney for health care for their demented relatives and avoid the cost and procedures of guardianship.
4. Ebb and flow— घटाव-बढ़ाव/পতন এবং উন্নতি/the way in which the level of something regularly becomes higher or lower in a situation
Example: You have to accept the ebb and flow of love in a relationship.
5. Streamlined (Verb)—सुधार/উন্নত /make (an organization or system) more efficient and effective by employing faster or simpler working methods.
Synonyms: Efficient, smooth-running, well run, well organized, slick
Example: Thanks to new technologies, manufacturing has become more flexible, streamlined, and efficient, and has resulted in a higher quality of product.
6. Hoards (Noun) — संग्रहीत वस्तुओं/ভাণ্ডার/a stock or store of money or valued objects, typically one that is secret or carefully guarded.
Synonyms: Cache, stockpile, stock, store, collection, supply, reserve, reservoir, fund, accumulation
Antonyms: Fighting, Hostilities
Example: Both are of great value and can be either hoarded or distributed.
- Nudge (Verb)– कुहनी से हलका धक्का/কনুইদ্বারা মৃদু গুন্তা/prod (someone) gently with one’s elbow in order to attract attention.
Synonyms: poke, elbow, dig, prod, jog, jab, but.
Example: People were nudging each other and pointing at me.
8.Consolidation (Noun) – समेकन/একীকরণ/the action or process of making something stronger or more solid.
Synonyms: Intergration; concentration; concretion;
Antonyms: Separation, segregation
Example: The takeovers came amid a wave of consolidation as the so-called Big Oil companies gobbled up competitors.
- Presumably (Adverb)- शायद/সম্ভবতঃ/ used to convey that what is asserted is very likely though not known for certain.
Synonyms: Probably, assume, expect, believe
Example: They can presumably afford to buy a bigger apartment.
10.Incumbent (Adjective) — निर्भर/বাধ্যতামূলক / necessary for (someone) as a duty or responsibility.
Synonyms:Binding, obligatory, mandatory, necessary, compulsory, required, requisite, essential, imperative
Example: In this situation it was equally possible that other interested parties might want to strengthen the international reputation of the incumbent government.
6the December 2018 (Download pdf)
1.Impaired (ADJECTIVE): बिगड़ा हुआ)/ হত /affected by alcohol or drugs to the extent of losing control over one’s faculties or behaviour.
Synonyms: faulty, flawed
Antonyms: perfect, unbroken
Example: However, children with autism also were impaired on the delayed response task.
- 2. Bolster(Verb): सिलेंडर का काम करना/মদত দেওয়া/ provide (a seat) with padded support
Synonyms: Strengthen, Support, Reinforce
Example: I snuggled down into the heavily bolstered seat.
- Obloquy (NOUN): अपमान/ অবমাননা/ strong public condemnation
Synonyms: aspersion, censure
Antonyms: approval, exaltation
Example : No matter with what good intentions he paves his path, he will finish in obloquy.
- Prudence(Noun): विवेक/দূরদর্শিতা The quality of being prudent; cautiousness.
Synonyms: Wisdom, Judgement, Good judgement
Antonyms: Folly, Recklessness
Example: The challenge we are trying to meet is balancing financial prudence with the need for success.
- Balmy (ADJECTIVE): सौम्य/সুবাসিত /characterized by pleasantly warm weather
Synonyms: moist, tropical
Antonyms: balanced, inclement
Example: Everything seems so green and balmy, and the people are cheerful.
- Funnel(Verb): कीप /ফানেল/Guide or channel (something) through or as if through a funnel.
Synonyms: Channel, Guide, Feed, Direct, Convey
Antonyms: Scatter, Splurge
Example: Folding funnels and energy landscapes of larger proteins within the capillarity approximation.
- Buttress(Verb): टेक/ আলম্ব/Increase the strength of or justification for; reinforce.
Synonyms: Strengthen, Reinforce, Fortify, Support
Antonyms: Undercut, Undermine, Weaken
Example: The movement’s robust aura is buttressed at times by rasguado and golpe sounds,32 character features of the flamenco guitar.
- Prognosis(Noun): पूर्वानुमान /পূর্বাভাস /A forecast of the likely outcome of a situation.
Synonyms: Forecast, Prediction, Projection, Prognostication
Antonyms: Calculation, Measurement
Example: I was reading a gloomy economic prognosis in the paper this morning.
- Abrogate (VERB): अभिनिषेध करना/ উচ্ছেদ করা /repeal or do away with (a law, right, or formal agreement).
Synonyms: annul, invalidate
Antonyms: approve, permit
Example : The new tariff broke this ceiling and the distribution agreement abrogated.
7th December 2018(Download pdf)
1.Proximate (Adjective) — निकटस्थ/ অব্যবহিত / (Especially of the cause of something) closest in relationship; immediate.
Synonyms: Approaching, Coming, Forthcoming, Imminent
Antonyms: Bygone, Erstwhile, Foregone, Former
Example: The proximate cause of the disaster was a piece of metal lying on the runway.
2.Condone (Verb)- माफ करना/ ক্ষমা করা/ accept (behaviour that is considered morally wrong or offensive)
Synonyms: forget, forgive
Antonyms: deny, refuse
Example: In this spontaneous mass reaction thesis, the state’s inaction during the violence gets condoned.
3.Gratify (Verb) — कृतार्थ करना/ বাসনা চরিতার্থ করা/give (someone) pleasure or satisfaction.
Synonyms: please, gladden, delight, make someone feel good, satisfy
Antonyms: displease, frustrate
Example: We were gratified by the response to our appeal.
4.Contrivance (Noun): युक्ति/ কৌশল/ plan
Synonyms: ruse, gimmick
Antonyms: ignorance, disorganisation
Example: In spite of the clear benefit with the use of ‘unreal’ examples, there is a persistent prejudice against such contrivance.
5.Totter (Verb) — लड़खड़ाते हुए चलना/ টলমল করা /move in a feeble or unsteady way.
Synonyms: teeter, walk unsteadily, stagger, wobble, stumble
Antonyms: controlled, firm, settled, stable, steady.
Example: The economic damage to those tottering on the brink may well push them over the edge.
6.Unconscionable(Adj.)- अनुचित /অযৌক্তিক / not right or reasonable.
Synonyms: uncivilized, unethical
Antonyms: cultured, civilized
Example: I am told that the delays are in some cases quite unconscionable.
7.Competent (Adjective) — सामथर्यवान/Having the necessary ability, knowledge, or skill to do something successfully.
Synonyms: Capable, Able, Proficient, Adept, Adroit.
Antonyms: Incompetent, Inadequate.
8.Encroach (Verb)-अतिक्रमण करना / অনধিকার প্রবেশ করা /intrude on (a person’s territory, rights, personal life, etc.).
Synonyms: intrude, infringe
Antonyms: keep off, ignore
Example: He comes to the door while “we” are vegging out the next morning on the sofa (2, line 7), thus encroaching on the students’ territory.
9.Tardy (Adjective) – अपेक्षित समय से विलंबित/ শ্লথ /Delaying or delayed beyond the right or expected time; late.
Synonyms: Crawling, Creeping, Dallying, Dawdling, Dilatory
Antonyms: Early, Inopportune, Precocious, Premature
Example: Its tardy arrival focuses our attention on our responsibility, and on promotion of health and prevention of disease.
10.Embezzle (Verb)-पचाना /তসরুফ করা / steal or misappropriate (money placed in one’s trust or belonging to the organization for which one works).
Synonyms: forge, swindle
Antonyms: reimburse, compensate
Example: She embezzled thousands of dollars from the charity.
8th December 2018(Download Now)
1.Kibble (Verb)- टुकड़े टुकड़े करना /বালতি/ grind or chop (beans, grain, etc.) coarsely.
Synonyms: crumble, grate
Antonyms: build, liberate
Example : One uses the expression “kibble” in relation to chalk.
2.Flare-up (noun) — भड़कना/ জ্বলে উঠা /A sudden outburst of something, especially violence or hostility.
Synonyms: Blow up, Flip (out)
Antonyms: Calm (down), Simmer down
Example: There was another flare-up of rioting later that day.
3.Frail(Adj.)- अनैतिक/ দুর্বলতাগ্রস্ত/ (of a person) weak and delicate
Synonyms: breakable, feeble
Antonyms: hearty, strong
Example: The female matron at this time had duties of a more domestic and maternal nature, especially towards the ill and frail inmates.
4.Jocular(Adj.)- रसिक /হাস্যজনক /fond of or characterized by joking; humorous or playful.
Synonyms: humorous, playful
Antonyms: gloomy, sad
Example: He was informal, familiar and jocular ; he could be bawdy, coarse and crude.
5.Tacit (Adjective) — अंतर्निहित/ নীরব /Understood or implied without being stated.
Synonyms: Implicit, Understood, Implied
Antonyms: Explicit, Stated
Example: Thus, direct or tacit pronatalism survived because of historically specific, regional demands for labor.
6.Jibe (Verb)- हंसी / বিদ্রূপ /be in accord; agree
Synonyms: harmonize, conform
Antonyms: disagree, differ
Example: Unlike many other politicians, he refuses to indulge in cheap jibes at other people’s expense.
7.Strenuous (adjective) – कठिन/ শ্রমসাধ্য /Requiring or using great effort or exertion.
Synonyms: Arduous, Difficult, Hard, Tough, Taxing
Antonyms: Easy, Effortless, Half-hearted, Feeble
Example: A highly condensed exposition makes for strenuous reading in a few papers, but the contents make it well worth the effort.
8.Tutelary(Adj.)- सलाहकार /রক্ষাকর /serving as a protector, guardian, or patron.
Synonyms: Guardian, advisory
Antonyms: careless, inattentive
Example: The state maintained a tutelary relation with the security police
9.Juncture (Noun) – समय/ সন্ধিক্ষণ /A particular point in events or time.
Synonyms: Point, Point in time, Time, Moment
Antonyms: Cleft, Crack, Crevice
Example: Even so, these do reflect the popular mood at each of the junctures in time.
10.Effete(Adj.)- अशक्त / নিঃশেষিত /affected, over-refined, and ineffectual.
Synonyms: spoilt, destroyed
Antonyms: disciplined, proper
Example: The authority of an effete aristocracy began to dwindle
9th December(Download Now)
1.Harrowing(Verb)- शोकजनक/মর্মভেদী/cause distress to.
Synonyms : Distress, trouble, afflict, grieve, torment, torture, crucify, rack, sear, pain, wound, mortify
Antonyms :Calm, comfort, heartening
Example : They ploughed and harrowed the heavy clay.
2.Gargantuan(Adj.)- विशाल/ বিশাল/ extremely big
Synonyms : Massive, huge, colossal, vast, immense, cosmic, tremendous, gigantic, giant, monstrous.
Antonyms : Tiny
Example : Clearly, the calculation of precise costs for all support for older people would be a gargantuan task.
3.Forerunner(Noun)- अग्र-दूत/অগ্রদূত/a person or thing that precedes the coming or development of someone or something else.
Synonyms: Predecessor, precursor, antecedent, ancestor, forebear
Antonyms : Descendant
Example : Similarly, the concept of generation, the forerunner of the notion of cohorts, needs revision.
4.Quashed(Verb)- को खारिज कर दिया/ বিলুপ্ত করা/reject as invalid, especially by legal procedure.
Synonyms : Cancel, reverse, rescind, repeal, revoke, retract
Antonyms : Validate
Example : His conviction was quashed on appeal
5.Compensate(Verb)- मुआवजा देना/প্রতিদান করা/give (someone) something, typically money, in recognition of loss, suffering, or injury incurred; recompense.
Synonyms : Recompense, repay, pay back, reimburse, remunerate, recoup
Example : The loss of the interaction might also be compensated for by the intron-encoded protein.
6.Immutable(Adj.)– अडिग/ অপরিবর্তনীয়/unchanging over time or unable to be changed.
Synonyms : Unchangeable, fixed, set, rigid, inflexible
Antonyms : Variable
Example : Our language games do not come fully equipped with books of immutable rules.
7.Stance(Noun)- मुद्रा/ভঙ্গি/the way in which someone stands, especially when deliberately adopted
Synonyms : Posture, body position, pose, attitude, bearing
Example : Indeed, the standing of individual gentlemen could sometimes be affected by their political stances.
8.Erupt(Verb)- भड़क उठी / সবেগে উৎক্ষিপ্ত /(of an object) explode with fire and noise.
Synonyms : Become active, flare up, eject/vent material, explode
Antonyms :Calm down
Example : Two years later a rash of race riots unseen since the ‘ red summer ‘ of 1919 erupted around the country.
9.Indebtedness(Noun)- ऋण/দায়/the condition of owing money.
Example : The industry is taking steps to reduce indebtedness and cut costs
10.Fragmentation(Noun)– विखंडन/ টুকরা টুকরা করা/ the process or state of breaking or being broken into fragments.
Example : He claimed that social fragmentation was a by-product of the internet.
10th December (Download Now)
1.Morbid (Adjective) — स्र्ग्ण/ অস্বাস্থ্যকর /Characterized by an abnormal and unhealthy interest in disturbing and unpleasant subjects, especially death and disease.
Synonyms: Ghoulish, Macabre, Unhealthy, Gruesome
Example: The morbid risk represents the percentage of family members who develop the specific disorder.
2.Skullduggery(Noun)- वाक्छल / প্রতারণা /underhand, unscrupulous, or dishonest behaviour or activities.
Synonyms: chicanery, crafty
Antonyms: probity, modesty
Example: They are all juggling around, and a lot of skulduggery is going on.
3.Malaise (Noun)— अस्वस्थता/ অসুস্থতাবোধ /A general feeling of discomfort, illness, or unease whose exact cause is difficult to identify.
Synonyms: Unhappiness, Restlessness, Uneasiness
Antonyms: Comfort, Well-being
Example: In the second scenario, a patient is suffering from fevers, malaise, and a painful blistering rash after infection with smallpox.
4.Pique (Noun): मनमुटाव /বিরূপতা /stiff fabric, typically cotton, woven in a strongly ribbed or raised pattern.
Synonyms: annoyance, displeasure
Antonyms: delight, happiness
Example: One day they got word about a very popular lead guitar player who piqued their interest.
5.Keen (Adjective) — इच्छुक/ উত্সাহী/ Having or showing eagerness or enthusiasm
Synonyms: Eager, Anxious, Impatient, Determined, Desirous
Antonyms: Reluctant, Apathetic, Half-hearted
Example: I can be perfectly rational in believing that my faculty of vision is keener than my companions.
6.Notorious (Adjective)— कुख्यात/ কুখ্যাত /Famous or well known, typically for some bad quality or deed.
Synonyms: Infamous, Of ill repute, Ill-famed, Scandalous
Antonyms: Unknown, Anonymous, Faceless
Example: He was notorious for his violent and threatening behaviour.
7.Unbridled (Adjective)— अनियंत्रित; स्वेच्छापूर्ण/ লাগামহীন/ uncontrolled; unconstrained.
Synonyms: Unrestrained, Unconstrained, Uncontrolled
Antonyms: Restrained, Controlled
Example: He saw how entrenched were conventional approaches to unbridled state power as the ultima ratio of international affairs.
8.Putative(Adjective)- ख्यात /অবৈধ/ generally considered or reputed to be.
Synonyms: presumptive, supposed
Antonyms: proven, real
Example: However, no biophysical studies of this putative interaction are available yet.
9.Tyro (Noun)- नौसिखिए/ শিক্ষানবিস/ a beginner or novice
Synonyms: novice, learner
Antonyms: expert, veteran
Example: I confess that he would be a mere tyro against some of the delaying tactics that one sees in evidence from time to time.
10 Petulant(Adjective): ढीठ /প্রগল্ভ/ (of a person or their manner) childishly sulky or bad-tempered
Synonyms: impatient, cranky
Antonyms: patient, good-natured
Example: His son’s and his favourite’s recent debacle in foreign affairs induced a sulky, petulant gloom in the king that intensified his ill health.
16th December (Download pdf)
1.Steadfast (Adjective)– दृढ़ / কায়েম /Resolutely or dutifully firm and unwavering.
Synonyms: Loyal, Faithful, Committed
Antonyms: Disloyal, Irresolute
Example: The other six business papers remained steadfast and vocal in their opposition to war.
2.Buyback (Noun)- वापस खरीदना / অব্যাহতি দেওয়া /the buying back of goods by the original seller.
Synonyms: privilege, allowance
Antonyms: repudiation, refusal
Example: Redemption relates to the customary practice of land-sales containing buyback arrangements, some of surprisingly long duration.
3.Unfettered (Adjective)– निरंकुश /কারামুক্ত /Not confined or restricted.
Synonyms: Unrestrained, Unrestricted, Unconstrained, Free, Unbridled
Antonyms: Restricted, Fettered
Example: The world is not an arena where we can measure the impact of unfettered regulatory competition.
4.Quandary (Noun)– व्याकुलता / মুশকিল /A state of perplexity or uncertainty over what to do in a difficult situation.
Synonyms: Dilemma, Plight, Predicament
Antonyms: Breeze, Cinch, Duck Soup, Snap
Example: These results will not affect studies of large parties, but do create a quandary for research where there are small voting blocs.
5.Prorogue (Verb)– अवसान करना /স্থগিত রাখা (Discontinue a session of (a parliament or other legislative assembly) without dissolving it.
Synonyms: Adjourn, Prorogate, Recess, Suspend
Antonyms: Inaugurate, Launch, Open
Example-If we wish to prorogue, we really should get on.
6.Lofty (Adjective)– लंबा / লম্বা /Of imposing height.
Synonyms: Tall, High, Giant, Towering
Antonyms: Low, Short
Example: The elegant square was shaded by lofty palms
7.Deflationary (Adjective)– अपस्फीतिकर / সঙ্কোচ /Characterized by or tending to cause economic deflation.
Synonyms: Bankruptcy, Collapse, Decline, Deflation
Antonyms: Increase, Rise, Success
Example: Unemployment is the unfortunate legacy of two decades of deflationary economic policies.
8.Unceremonious (Adjective)– अनौपचारिक /শিষ্টাচারহীন /Having or showing a lack of courtesy; rough or abrupt.
Synonyms: Abrupt, Sudden, Hasty, Hurried
Antonyms: Polite, Formal
Example: The unceremonious packing-off of such persons back to where they came from is entirely justified.
9.Indulgent (Ajective)- कृपालु /অসংযত/ having or indicating a readiness or over-readiness to be generous to or lenient with someone.
Synonyms:Permissive, easy-going, broad-minded, liberal
Antonyms: inconsiderate, intolerant
Example: At the same time, his indulgent tone does not betray a strongly negative reaction to their self-identification.
10.Pile (Noun)- ढेर/ গাদা/ a heap of things laid or lying one on top of another.
Synonyms: Heap, stack, mound, pyramid, mass
Antonyms: ditch, poverty
Example: He had a pile of papers on his desk.