Independent States :Modern India
Hyderabad & Carnatic
- The founder of the Asaf Jahi house of Hyderabad was Kilich Khan, popularly known as Nizam-ul-Mulk. He got the viceroyalty of Deccan for helping in the overthrowing of Sayyid brothers.
- Puran Chand was his diwan
- For some time, he was the Wazir of the Empire. But, he soon got frustrated with the Emperor Muhammad Shah preventing him from undertaking reforms. He moved to Deccan and laid foundations for Hyderabad state.
- Carnatic was under the control of Nizam of Hyderabad. Just like Nizam had become independent from Delhi, Deputy Govenor of the Carnatic, known as Nawab, freed himself from the control of Deccan.
- Sadatullah Khan of Carnatic made his nephew Dost Ali as his successor of Carnatic without the approval of Nizam. this caused rivalry between Carnatic and Hyderabad.
- The Nizam provided assistance to the British during 1857 revolt.
- Hyderabad remain independent until it become a part of independent India.
- Founded by Saadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk.
- Saadat Khan played a crucial role in imperial affairs during the crisis of Nadir Shah’s invasion and committed suicide “to save his name and honors”.
- The highest post in his government was held by a Hindu, Maharaja Nawab Rai.
- He was succeeded by Safdar Jung who also was appointed as Wazir of the Empire in 1748. He made an alliance with
- Maratha Sardars. He undertook wars against Rohillas and Bangash Pathans. Safdar Jang’s successor in the governorship of Awadh was his son Shuja-ud-daula.
- In the conflict between Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas, which culminated in the third battle of Panipat (1761) Shuja-ud-daula was an ally of the Afgan invader.
- Venkata-II of Vijayanagara ruler founded Mysore.
- This territory located at the junction of Eastern and Western Ghats was ruled by the Wodeyars. Two brothers Deva Raja (Dalwai or commander-in-cheif) and Nana Raja (sarvadikari or controller of revenue and finance) usurped power in the Mysore state.
- The French and the British got involved in the struggle known as the Second Karnatak war brought about on account of Nana Raja’s alliance with the British to west Tiruchurapalli (Tamilnadu). But later on Nana Raja switched his alliance from the British to the French.
- Haider Ali started his career as a soldier in Mysore state
- In 1761, he overthrew Nazrana and established his authority over Mysore.He established a modern Arsenal in Dindigul
- In 1769,he repeatedly defeated the British in First Anglo Mysore War & reached the wall of Madras. he died in 1782 during second Anglo Mysore war.
- Tipu Sultan succeeded Haider Ali.He planted the tree of Liberty at Srirangapatnam( capital of Mysore) and become a member of Jacobian Club.
- He introduced a new calendar (a new Mauludi lunisolar calendar), a new system of coinage, a new land revenue system, which initiated the growth of the Mysore silk industry and new scales of weights and measures.
- He sent an expert to Bengal Subah to study silk cultivation and processing, after which Mysore began developing poly voltine silk.
- He made Persian the official language throughout his kingdom.
- He was tolerant & enlightened in his approach towards other religion. He gave money for the construction of image of goddess Sharada on the Shrinageri Temple.
- Tipu established embassies in foreign country in modern line.
- In the Third Anglo-Mysore war (1790-92) British with the support of Marathas marched against Mysore. Tipu lost the battle and Treaty of Sri Rangapattanam was signed.
- He died in 1799, fighting at the gates of srirangapatnam during the fourth Anglo Mysore war
- Rajputs tried to re-establish their independence in the 18th century. This forced Mughal ruler Bahadur Shah. This forced Bahadur Shah I to march against Ajith Singh.
- Raja Sawai Jai Singh of Amber was the most outstanding ruler of the era. He founded the city of Jaipur. He made Jaipur a great seat of science and art. He was an expert in astronomy, geometry, trigonometry and Sanskrit.
- He was given title of Sawai by the Mughal Emperor, Farrukhsiyar in the year 1699, who had summoned him to Delhi, impressed by his wit. “Sawai” means one and a quarter time’s superior to his contemporaries.
- He erected astronomical observatories at Jaipur, Ujjain, Delhi, Varanasi, and Mathura. Based on his observations, he published an accurate astronomical table called ‘Zij-i- Muhammad Shahi ’.
- He had Euclid’s “Elements of Geometry” translated into Sanskrit. Jai Singh also translated works by people like John Napier.
- It was at Jai Singh’s insistence that the hated jaziya tax was finally abolished by the Emperor Muhammad Shah in 1720. In 1728 Jai Singh prevailed on him to also withdraw the pilgrimage tax on Hindus at Gaya.
- Rajputs at one stage controlled the entire territory extending from some 600 miles south of Delhi to Surat on the Western Cost. However, the internal dissensions prevented the Rajputs from consolidating their position and made them a prey to Maratha intervention.