Others name- Harappan Civilization,Saraswati Civilization & it is the first discovered site
- Indus valley civilization belongs to Bronze Age
- It is one of the four(Mesopotamia,China,Egyptian) earliest civilization in the world
- It is a urban level civilization
the Civilization covered parts of Sindh, Balochistan, Afghanistan, west Punjab, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh Haryana, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Maharashtra
mundigak and shortugai are the two sites located in Afghanistan
first suktagendor on Makran coast Pak Iran border, East alamgirpur in Uttar Pradesh
North Munda in Jammu Near Chenab river south dharmabad in Maharashtra are major sites
town planning was not uniform. a unique feature was the grid system that is Street cutting across one another at right angles, dividing the town into large rectangular blocks
the town are divided into two parts upper part of Citadel and lower part
the fortified Citadel on the Western side house public building and member of ruling class
below the Citadel on the eastern side, lay the layer town inhabited by the common people
underground drainage system connected all houses to the street drain made of motor, lime and Gypsum. they are covered with either brick or stone slab and equipped with its manhole. this source developed sense of Health and sanitation
the great bath founded in Mohenjo Daro it was used for religious bathing. steps at either end lead to the surface. there were changing room alongside.
the granaries in Harappa six granaries in a row were found in the Citadel at Harappa
houses are made up of burnt bricks. there are often two or more Storeyed, varied in size, with a square courtyard around, which had a number of room. Windows did not face the main street. they had tiled bathrooms.
lamppost why are elected at regular intervals. it indicates the existence of street lighting.
agriculture was the backbone of the civilization. the soil was fertile due to inundation in the river Indus and flooding.
the Indus people showed seed in the flood plains in November, find the flood water receded and reaped their harvest of wheat and barley in April, before the advent of next flood.
they used wooden plough share and stone Sickle of harvesting.
Garba band or nalaas enclosed by Dam for storing water were a feature in parts of Balochistan. grains are stored in granaries.
crops produced wheat,barley, dates, Peas, Shesamum, mustard, millet, Ragi, Bajra and jowar. at Lothal and Rampur rice husks were found
they were first to produce cotton in the world, which group called as sindon drive from Sind. a fragment of woven cotton cloth was found at Mohenjo Daro
well irrigation is evident from Aladdinho, dams and irrigation Canal from Dholavira. sugarcane was not known to Indus people.
domestication of animals
animal rearing was practiced, evident from the discovery of The humped bull
the domesticated buffaloes,oxens,sheep,asses, goat, pigs, elephant, dogs and cats etc.
camel bones are reported at Kali bangan and remains of horse from surkotada
agriculture, industry and forest produce provided the basic of internal and external trade.
that was based on barter system. Coins were not evident, bullock carts, Pack animals and boat were used for transportation
weights and measures were made of limestone, steatite etc. generally in cubicle shape. they were in multiple of 16
several stick inscribed with measure marks have been discovered. it points that linear system of measurement was in used
foreign trad fluorished with Mesopotamia or sumaria( Iraq), Central Asia, persia, Afghanistan and Bahrain
sumerian text rafer to trade with. Baharen and Makran coast were to intermediate station.
Lothal( artificial dockyard), surkotada, sutkagendor,prabspattan, Bhatrao, Kali bangan, Dholavira, daimabad were coastal towns of the civilization
major export were Agricultural Products, cotton goods, Terracotta, figurines, pottery, steatite beads( from chanhudaro), conch shell( from Lothal), Ivory products, copper etc.
Art and craft
Harappan use stone tools and implements and were well acquainted with bronze. bronze words made by mixing copper from Khetri with tin
bead making and Jewellery of gold, silver precious stone were made. cotton fabrics were used in Summers and woolen in winter
both men and women were very fond of ornament and dressing up
pottery both plane( red) or painted( red and black) what are you was made. pots were decorated with human figures, plants, animal and geometrical patterns and ochre was painted over it
seals were made of steatite pictures of one horned bull, buffalo, tiger, rhinoceros, goat and elephant are found on the seal. they marked ownership of property
Mesopotamian seals were found from Mohenjo Daro and Kali Bagan; Persian seal was obtained from Lothal, most important one is the Pashupati seal.
metal image bronze image of a nude woman dancer( identified as devadasi) and stone steatite image of a bearded man( both of them from Mohenjo Daro)
Terracotta figurines fire baked clay was used to make toys, objects of worship, animals( monkey, dog,sheep, cattle, humpless Bulls) cattle toys with movable head, toy cart, whistle shaped like Bird and both male and female figurines.
they played dice games. gambling was their favourite time pass. no clear evidence of music
Chiep female diety a Terracotta figure where a plant is sown growing out of the embryo offer women, represent mother goddess( goddess of Earth)
chief male diety Pasupathy Mahadeva represented in seal as sitting in a yogic posture on a low Throne and having three faces and two horns. he is surrounded by an elephant, tiger Rhino and buffalo and two deers appear at his feet
Lingam and Yoni worship was prevalent